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Different Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is classified on the basis the cause of high blood-sugar in the human body. The causes can be broadly classified as body’s inability to produce sufficient insulin cells and irresponsiveness of cells towards insulin. There are 3 major types of diabetes, viz., Type-1, Type-2 and Gestational Diabetes mellitus.

Type-1 diabetes

The loss of beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas is termed as Type-1 Diabetes. This is further classified into:

Immune-mediated diabetes.

 

Idiopathic diabetes.

Most of the Type-1 cases are of immune-mediated nature. The loss of beta cells due auto-immune attack mediated by T-cells cause immune-mediated diabetes. No preventive measure for Type1 diabetes has been discovered yet. Generally, people who suffer from Type-1 diabetes have good health otherwise. Responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin is also normal during early stages of the disorder. Both adults and children are prone to Type-1.

Type-1 diabetes

Type-2 diabetes

Irresponsiveness of tissues of human body characterizes Type-2 Diabetes mellitus. Resistance of body-tissues towards insulin can be coupled by relative reduction in production of insulin. Insulin receptors are believed to be the cause of irresponsiveness of tissues to cells. However, the specific cause of Type-2 cases has not been identified yet. Reduction in insulin sensitivity is the predominant abnormality during the early stages of Type-2 diabetes. Certain measures and medications are effective to reduce production of glucose by liver or improve insulin sensitivity and, consequently, reverse hyperglycemia but only during the early stages of the disorder. Type-2 is the most prevalent kind of diabetes in the world.

Gestational diabetes

Relatively poor production of insulin and irresponsiveness of tissues are found in combination in cases of Gestational diabetes. 2%-5% of pregnant women suffer from gestational Diabetes mellitus or GDM. However, the disorder gradually improves or disappears after delivery. Thorough medical supervision throughout pregnancy can treat completely treat GDM. However, 20%-50% of women who are affected by GDM have been found to acquire Type-2 later in their lives.

Though it is impermanent, GDM can affect health of mother or the foetus, if not treated. Such foetuses face the risk of central nervous system anomaly, congenital cardiac anomaly, respiratory distress syndrome, skeletal muscle malformation, etc.

Diabetes mellitus is classified on the basis the cause of high blood-sugar in the human body. The causes can be broadly classified as body’s inability to produce sufficient insulin cells and irresponsiveness of cells towards insulin. There are 3 major types of diabetes, viz., Type-1, Type-2 and Gestational Diabetes mellitus.

Type-1 diabetes

The loss of beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas is termed as Type-1 Diabetes. This is further classified into:

Immune-mediated diabetes.

 

Idiopathic diabetes.

Most of the Type-1 cases are of immune-mediated nature. The loss of beta cells due auto-immune attack mediated by T-cells cause immune-mediated diabetes. No preventive measure for Type1 diabetes has been discovered yet. Generally, people who suffer from Type-1 diabetes have good health otherwise. Responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin is also normal during early stages of the disorder. Both adults and children are prone to Type-1.

Irresponsiveness of tissues of human body characterizes Type-2 Diabetes mellitus. Resistance of body-tissues towards insulin can be coupled by relative reduction in production of insulin. Insulin receptors are believed to be the cause of irresponsiveness of tissues to cells. However, the specific cause of Type-2 cases has not been identified yet. Reduction in insulin sensitivity is the predominant abnormality during the early stages of Type-2 diabetes. Certain measures and medications are effective to reduce production of glucose by liver or improve insulin sensitivity and, consequently, reverse hyperglycemia but only during the early stages of the disorder. Type-2 is the most prevalent kind of diabetes in the world.

Gestational diabetes

Relatively poor production of insulin and irresponsiveness of tissues are found in combination in cases of Gestational diabetes. 2%-5% of pregnant women suffer from gestational Diabetes mellitus or GDM. However, the disorder gradually improves or disappears after delivery. Thorough medical supervision throughout pregnancy can treat completely treat GDM. However, 20%-50% of women who are affected by GDM have been found to acquire Type-2 later in their lives.

Though it is impermanent, GDM can affect health of mother or the foetus, if not treated. Such foetuses face the risk of central nervous system anomaly, congenital cardiac anomaly, respiratory distress syndrome, skeletal muscle malformation, etc.

Gestational diabetes

Prediabetes

As the name suggests, Prediabetes is the condition of high levels of blood glucose in the body but not enough to be declared as Type-2 diabetes.

LADA

Latent Auto-immune Diabetes of Adults or LADA is the term used to describe occurrence of Type-1 diabetes. It is often diagnosed wrongly as Type-2.

Apart from these, Diabetes mellitus can occur due to autosomal or mitochondrial mutations, excessive production of insulin antagonistic hormones, extensive damage to pancreas as result of certain diseases, impairment of insulin secretion by action of certain drugs and similar causes that lead to poor or no absorption of glucose in the body.

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